Hoʻokumu aniani a me ka nānā ʻana i nā mea

Ua kiʻi mua ʻia ke aniani mai ka paʻa ʻana o nā pōhaku ʻakika i hoʻokuʻu ʻia mai nā lua pele.Ma kahi o 3700 BC, ua hana ko ʻAigupita kahiko i nā mea aniani a me nā mea aniani maʻalahi.I kēlā manawa, he aniani kala wale nō.Ma kahi o 1000 BC, hana ʻo Kina i ke aniani kala ʻole.I ke kenekulia 12 AD, ua ʻike ʻia ke aniani kalepa a hoʻomaka e lilo i mea ʻenehana.I ke kenekulia 18, i mea e hoʻokō ai i nā pono o ka hoʻomohala ʻana i nā telescopes, ua hana ʻia ke aniani optical.I ka makahiki 1873, hana mua ʻo Belgium i ke aniani pālahalaha.I ka makahiki 1906, ua hana ʻo ʻAmelika i ke aniani pālahalaha e alakaʻi ana i ka mīkini.Mai ia manawa, me ka hana ʻenehana a me ka hana nui o ke aniani, ua puka mai ke aniani o nā hoʻohana like ʻole a me nā waiwai like ʻole.I kēia mau lā, ua lilo ke aniani i mea nui i ke ola o kēlā me kēia lā, hana, a me ka ʻepekema a me ka ʻenehana.

饮料瓶-_19

Hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ke ʻano aniani i ke aniani oxide a me ke aniani non-oxide e like me nā mea nui.He liʻiliʻi nā ʻano a me ka nui o ke aniani non-oxide, ka nui o ke aniani chalcogenide a me ke aniani halide.ʻO nā anion o ke aniani chalcogenide ka nui o ka sulfur, selenium, tellurium, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe, hiki ke ʻoki i ke kukui lōʻihi pōkole a hele i ke kukui melemele, ʻulaʻula, a me nā kukui infrared kokoke a mamao.He haʻahaʻa kona kūpaʻa a loaʻa iā ia nā waiwai hoʻololi a me ka hoʻomanaʻo.ʻO ke aniani Halide ka haʻahaʻa refractive index a me ka haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa, a hoʻohana nui ʻia e like me ke aniani optical.

主图2

Hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ke aniani oxide i ke aniani silicate, ke aniani borate, ke aniani phosphate a pēlā aku.ʻO ke aniani silicate e pili ana i ke aniani nona ka mea kumu ʻo SiO 2, he nui nā ʻano a me nā noi ākea.ʻO ka maʻamau e like me ka ʻokoʻa ʻokoʻa o ka SiO 2 a me ka metala alkali a me ka honua alkaline metala oxides i loko o ke aniani, ua māhele ʻia i: ① Quartz aniani.ʻOi aku ka nui o ka SiO 2 ma mua o 99.5%, haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa hoʻonui hoʻonui, kiʻekiʻe ke kūpaʻa wela, kūpaʻa kemika maikaʻi, kukui ultraviolet a me nā kukui infrared, wela hoʻoheheʻe kiʻekiʻe, viscosity kiʻekiʻe, a paʻakikī i ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana.Hoʻohana nui ʻia ia i nā semiconductors, nā kumu kukui uila, kamaʻilio optical, nā lasers a me nā ʻenehana ʻē aʻe a me nā mea hana optical.②Ke aniani silica kiʻekiʻe.ʻO ka maʻiʻo o SiO 2 ma kahi o 96%, a ua like kona waiwai me nā aniani quartz.③ aniani lime soda.Loaʻa iā ia ka SiO 2 a loaʻa pū kekahi 15% Na 2 O a me 16% CaO.He haʻahaʻa ke kumu kūʻai, maʻalahi ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia, kūpono no ka hana nui, a ʻo kāna huahana he 90% o ke aniani hana.Hiki iā ia ke hana i nā ipu aniani, ke aniani pālahalaha, nā ipu, nā kukui kukui, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe. ④ Lead silicate glass.ʻO nā mea nui ʻo SiO 2 a me PbO, nona ka helu refractive kiʻekiʻe a me ke kūpaʻa leo kiʻekiʻe, a loaʻa ka pulu maikaʻi me nā metala.Hiki iā lākou ke hoʻohana i ka hana ʻana i nā ʻōpuʻu, nā ʻōpuʻu ʻawaʻawa, nā ipu aniani crystalline, ke aniani optical flint, etc.Hiki i ke aniani alakaʻi i loko o ka nui PbO ke ālai i nā kukui X a me nā kukui γ.⑤ aniani Aluminosilicate.Me ka SiO 2 a me Al 2 O 3 e like me nā mea nui, loaʻa iā ia kahi mahana palupalu kiʻekiʻe a hoʻohana ʻia e hana i nā ʻōpuʻu hoʻokuʻu, nā thermometer aniani kiʻekiʻe, nā paipu puhi kemika a me nā fiber aniani.⑥Borosilicate aniani.Me SiO 2 a me B 2 O 3 e like me nā ʻāpana nui, loaʻa iā ia ke kūpaʻa wela maikaʻi a me ke kūpaʻa kemika.Hoʻohana ʻia ia no ka hana ʻana i nā kīʻaha kuke, nā mea hana hale hana, ke aniani kuʻihao metala, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe. ʻO ke aniani Borate ka mea nui i haku ʻia me B 2 O 3, he haʻahaʻa hoʻoheheʻe haʻahaʻa, a hiki ke pale i ka corrosion e ka mahu sodium.ʻO ke aniani borate i loaʻa i nā mea ʻeleʻele koʻikoʻi he kiʻekiʻe refractive index a haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa.He ʻano aniani ʻōpika hou.Hoʻohana ke aniani Phosphate i ka P 2 O 5 ma ke ʻano he mea nui, he haʻahaʻa refractive index a haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa, a hoʻohana ʻia i nā mea hana ʻike.

饮料瓶-_17

Eia kekahi, ua māhele ʻia ke aniani i ke aniani toughened, ke aniani porous (ʻo ia hoʻi, ke aniani pahu, me ka nui o ka pore ma kahi o 40, hoʻohana ʻia no ka desalination o ke kai, virus filtration, etc.) e like me nā hiʻohiʻona hana, conductive aniani (hoʻohana ʻia e like me nā electrodes a me nā mokulele. nā pale makani), aniani-ceramics , aniani Opal (hoʻohana ʻia no nā mea kukui a me nā mea hoʻonaninani, etc.) a me ke aniani hollow (hoʻohana ʻia e like me ke aniani puka a me ka puka aniani), etc.

Kaʻina hana ʻO nā mea waiwai nui no ka hana aniani he mau kino hana aniani, hoʻoponopono aniani a me nā intermediates aniani, a ʻo ke koena he mau mea kōkua.ʻO nā mea waiwai nui e pili ana i nā oxides i hoʻokomoʻia i loko o ke aniani e hana i ka pūnaewele, nā oxides waena a me nā oxides waho;ʻO nā mea waiwai kōkua e loaʻa nā clarifiers, fluxes, opacifiers, colorants, decolorants, oxidants a me nā mea hōʻemi.

ʻO ke kaʻina hana aniani ka mea nui: ①Pre-processing o nā mea maka.Hoʻopiʻiʻia nā'ōpuʻu maka, hoʻomaloʻoʻia nā mea maloʻo maloʻo, a ua hanaʻia nā mea hao i loko o ka hao no ka weheʻana i ka hao e hōʻoia i ka maikaʻi o ke aniani.② Ka hoʻomākaukau ʻana i nā mea hana pūʻulu.③Meheʻe.Hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻia ka mea kīʻaha kīʻaha ma kahi wela kiʻekiʻe i loko o kahi pahu pahu a i ʻole kahi kīʻaha crucible e hana i ke aniani wai ʻaʻahu ʻole i kū i nā koi.④Hoʻokumu.E hana i ke aniani wai i nā huahana o nā ʻano i makemake ʻia, e like me nā pā pālahalaha, nā ʻano mea like ʻole, a pēlā aku. ⑤ Hoʻomaʻamaʻa wela.Ma o ka annealing, quenching a me nā kaʻina hana ʻē aʻe, hiki ke hoʻopau a hana ʻia ke koʻikoʻi o loko, ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana a i ʻole ka crystallization o ke aniani, a hiki ke hoʻololi ʻia ke ʻano o ke aniani.


Ka manawa hoʻouna: Jun-03-2019